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This hugely acclaimed textual content is now extra modern than ever! The up-to-date fifth version positive factors new details and unfastened entry to a full-text on-line version, photos, animations, and lots more and plenty extra on the brand-new pupil seek advice site. Readers will proceed to benefit from the present, concise, and easy method of the sector that made past versions so well known.
Insights into the rules of immune mobile lineage differentiation and specification in addition to into the regulate of lineage integrity, balance and plasticity are of basic value to knowing innate and adaptive immune responses. during this quantity, major specialists supply an updated and accomplished evaluation of modern advances within the transcriptional keep an eye on mechanisms and transcription issue networks that keep watch over those strategies in quite a few diversified immune telephone lineages.
Even with their really low incidence, systemic vasculitides were the item of extensive easy and medical investigations during the last few years. hence, very important developments were completed: from up to date diagnostic and category standards and a extra rational nomenclature to the popularity of an increasing spectrum of scientific manifestations and most likely devastating problems; from the popularity of the viral etiology of stipulations comparable to HCV-related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and HBV-associated polyarteritis nodosa to newly named variable vessel vasculitis exemplified by means of Behçet’s sickness; from single-organ vasculitis comparable to important fearful method vasculitis to the extra lately rising gains of the IgG4-related, immune-mediated illnesses which are displaying amazing scientific heterogeneity.
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Additional info for Annual Review of Immunology Volume 28 2010
The BAFFR has only a single TRAF-binding site, which is speciﬁc for TRAF3 (190). Unlike other TRAFs (such as TRAF2, TRAF5, and TRAF6), TRAF3 does not activate the canonical NFκB or JNK pathway (191). Instead, TRAF3, in the resting state, suppresses the noncanonical NF-κB pathway by binding NIK and targeting it for proteosomal degradation (192). NIK is responsible for directly phosphorylating and activating IKKα and the subsequent activation of the noncanonical pathway (193, 194). Activated BAFFR recruits TRAF3, allowing B cells to terminate TRAF3-mediated degradation of NIK.
The requirement for IL-7 in VH (D)JH recombination ﬁts well with recent observations that pro-B cells are in contact with IL-7-expressing stromal cells in bone marrow microenvironments. In bone marrow, several types of stromal cells (at least three types: osteoblasts, CXCL12hi reticular cells, and IL-7-expressing cells) have been proposed to function as speciﬁc cellular niches for promoting early B cell development in a stepwise manner (Figure 5b) (144). Most pre-pro-B cells are in contact with CXCL12hi reticular cells, whereas pro-B cells move away from CXCL12hi reticular cells and instead associate with IL-7-expressing stromal cells.
Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is a well-studied calcium-dependent transcription factor downstream of calcineurin (67). NFAT is a cytosolic protein and requires a continuous increase in Ca2+ to remain in the nucleus, wherein it activates transcription of target genes. B cells express three NFAT family members, NFATc1 (alternatively named NFAT2 or NFATc), NFATc2 (NFAT1 or NFATp), and NFATc3 (NFAT4 or NFATx) (68), which are components of the BCR signaling cascade. Although mice deﬁcient in each NFAT member have been reported (69–71), these reports have not addressed the B cell–intrinsic phenotype caused by NFAT inactivation.
Annual Review of Immunology Volume 28 2010 by Annual Reviews