By Mary T. Phillips
This quantity grew out of a venture to behavior a survey of the medical literature of the USA for goods addressing the e. thical and humane problems with animal experimentation. the unique function of the survey used to be to supply packground details for the improvement of a suite of consultant strains for using animals in learn then in education by way of the recent York Academy of Sciences' advert Hoc Committee on Animal study. ! We quickly discovered, in spite of the fact that, that the survey constituted a helpful source in its personal correct. during this booklet we current the result of the literature survey besides proper information regarding its legislative and historic con textual content. we are hoping that this fabric may be necessary to biomedical researchers grappling with animal welfare difficulties in addition to to social scientists drawn to tracing the evolution of the 20th-century section of the animal learn controversy. The time span lined by way of the survey was once chosen to compare the 20-year interval among the passage of the 1st federal Animal Welfare Act in 1966 and the latest laws regulating animal study, which took impression in the course of 1986. Our research examines this transitional interval during the pages of the clinical literature. in the course of those 2 many years, animal re seek within the usa was once reworked. Activist animal safeguard companies catapulted challenging moral inquiries to nationwide promenade inence, throwing the clinical community2 into turmoil.
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Additional info for Animal Research and Ethical Conflict: An Analysis of the Scientific Literature: 1966–1986
From all sources, we located a total of 690 items that fulfilled our criteria for relevance; 659 of these were journal items published in 79 different journals (see Appendix E). Third, we confirmed our results by performing separate computations using only the 484 items found in our manual search of the five selected journals. The trends discovered in these data, which we knew to be exhaustive for the five journals, were quite similar to the results for the total body of data. These trends, and an analysis of the small differences that did appear between the two sets of data, are presented in Chapter 4.
These summaries and coded categories were used for the qualitative analysis presented in Chapter 5. In doing the thematic coding, we departed from the procedure for handling articles in books described above. Since it was impossible to code a collection of papers by different authors for dominant ideas or themes as though the book formed a coherent whole, we coded each paper separately, regardless of whether it had been counted individually in the quantitative analysis. For this reason, the total number of items included in the qualitative analysis in Chapter 5 (717) is larger than the total number used in the quantitative analysis in Chapter 4 (690).
There are 18 items of this type included in the total. One example is an intriguing paper by Colin Beer that addresses the philosophical problem of other minds as it applies to the ethics of animal experimentation. 16 The remaining papers in this volume deal with ethical problems in the treatment of human patients and the general implications of neurology and biology for ethics, with no mention of animal research. This book, therefore, was not counted as a separate item. We made an effort to locate and read each of the 690 items, and we succeeded in over 90% of the cases.
Animal Research and Ethical Conflict: An Analysis of the Scientific Literature: 1966–1986 by Mary T. Phillips