By Carroll B.W., Ostlie D.A.
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Fukushima used a mixture of metal alkoxide and inorganic-salt precursors for the fabrication of BaTiO3 ﬁlms. Application of sol–gel processing for PZT thin ﬁlms started in 1984 with a report by Fukushima et al. , followed by Budd et al.  in 1985. Meanwhile, the chemical processing of thin ﬁlms of other ferroelectric oxides has made remarkable progresses. Ferroelectric thin ﬁlms ranging from polycrystalline to texture-oriented polycrystalline and epitaxial in nature have been synthesized for 20 years.
71, 1471 (2002) 3, 14, 15  K. H. Chew, Y. Ishibashi, F. Shin, H. Chan: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 72, 2974 (2003) 3, 15, 16  P. Ghosez, K. Rabe: Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2767 (2000) 13  N. Yanase, K. Abe, N. Fukushima, T. Kawakubo: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5305 (1999) 13  Y. Ishibashi, V. Dvorak: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 44, 32 (1978) 19  J. Scott, H. Duiker, P. Beale, B. Pouligny, K. Dimmler, M. Parris, D. Butlerand, S. Eaton: Physica B 150, 160 (1988) 20  Y. Ishibashi, M. Iwata: J. Phys.
BIT and BLT thin ﬁlms exhibit strong (00l) peaks, while BNT, BST and BGT thin ﬁlms have a marked (117) preferred orientation. Among the rare-earth-doped BIT thin ﬁlms, BNT thin ﬁlms show the best saturation properties of the ferroelectrics with a large Pr and small Ec for low applied voltages. However, low-temperature-processed BNT ﬁlms do not exhibit enough ferroelectricity. From further investigation of BNT ﬁlms, the surface morphology and ferroelectric properties can be improved by optimization of the Ge doping in the BNT, particularly in the case of BNT-based thin ﬁlms prepared at low temperatures.
An introduction to modern astrophysics by Carroll B.W., Ostlie D.A.