Download e-book for kindle: Alternatives to Animal Testing by R. E. Hester, R. M. Harrison

By R. E. Hester, R. M. Harrison

ISBN-10: 0854042113

ISBN-13: 9780854042111

Animal experimentation has lengthy been a arguable factor, with impassioned arguments on each side of the talk. more and more it has turn into extra expedient and possible to enhance new equipment that keep away from using animals. there's contract on each side that relief and refinement of experiments on animals may be an incredible aim for the industries involved.

Alternatives to Animal trying out, written by way of top specialists within the box, discusses the problems concerned and techniques that may be taken. subject matters contain: the security assessment of chemical substances; foreign validation and obstacles to the validation of other assessments; in vitro trying out for endocrine disruptors; clever ways to defense overview of chemical substances; replacement assessments and the regulatory framework.

The publication offers an updated dialogue of the present country of improvement of choices to animal checking out and is perfect for pros and teachers within the box. it can even be of use for graduate scholars wishing to pursue a occupation within the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.

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Nutr. 14, 26-41, 1998. , The Dose Makes the Poison: A Plain Language Guide, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997. , Taylor & Francis, London, 2000. fm Page 25 Wednesday, January 21, 2004 8:19 AM 3 Factors That Influence Toxicity DIET AND BIOTRANSFORMATION The biotransformation of a toxic compound usually, but not always, results in detoxification. It can, however, lead to the metabolic activation of foreign compounds. The effect of dietary constituents on the metabolism of foreign compounds has been the subject of intensive study for many years.

Following absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, the bioactive chemical is translocated to either the lymphatic system or the portal circulation. The portal circulation directs the chemicals to the liver, and many of the chemicals are excreted by the liver as bile. Because the bile empties back into the intestine, a cycle involving translocation of the chemical from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver and via the bile back to the intestine occurs. This cycle is known as enterohepatic circulation.

The overall strategy for assessing food additives has received strong endorsements from the scientific community, and only the details have been modified to keep pace with scientific advancements. S. Food Safety Council. The first step involves the careful selection and characterization of the substance to be tested. Preliminary evaluations of the substance are made by assessing physical and chemical properties of the test substance. A literature search is done to collect any available information regarding the toxicity testing of the substance.

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Alternatives to Animal Testing by R. E. Hester, R. M. Harrison


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