By Gawdat Bahgat (auth.)
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In order to initiate and expand hydropower projects, environmental and social impacts need to be explored and appropriately addressed and mitigated. 53 Geothermal Geothermal resources consist of thermal energy from the earth’s interior stored in both rock and trapped stream or liquid water. 54 Geothermal energy enjoys several advantages in comparison to other sources. Unlike fossil fuels, geothermal energy is infinite and produces no pollutants from emissions. Compared with other renewable sources, it also reflects different characteristics.
Wind Wind power is one of the oldest sources of energy in human history. It has been used for thousands of years in a wide range of applications. Technological progress has made it possible to generate electricity from wind since the 1970s. Since then wind power has become one of the most mature sources of renewable energy. It is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world. Between 2003 and 2010 wind generation more than tripled. Most of this growth took place in the United States, Europe, and Asia.
In 1995 the rate of rural electrification was only 18 per cent. In 1996 the National Electricity Office (ONE) launched a national electrification program known as Programme pour L’Electrification Rurale Global. 7 This success underscores the approximately 8 per cent annual increase in electricity demand nationwide. Morocco 25 Fossil fuels, by far, dominate the electricity sector, with a small share provided by hydropower. The country’s two largest electricity power stations at Mohammedia and Jorf Lasfar are both coal-fired.
Alternative Energy in the Middle East by Gawdat Bahgat (auth.)