By Pira International Ltd
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Extra info for Advances in Recycling and Deinking
Also, there is evidence that the dispersion or kneading step helps to separate the fibres from the toner ink particles, making the ink particles more readily floatable (Vidotti, 1997). The disadvantage of having the D step before the F step is dispersion or size reduction of the sticky material, which may reagglomerate later in the system. Most North American MOW systems are FDF or DFDF. Examples are the Union Camp facility in Franklin VA (Ferguson, 1995), and the Boise Cascade mill in Jackson AL (Ferguson and McBride, 1993).
The disc disperser can be run at higher temperatures to reduce bacteria and dirt specks, without harming the fibres. The kneader is more cost-efficient as it can be run at lower temperatures. McKinney and Roberts (1997) have reported that dispersion and kneading have a substantial impact on the physical properties of fibres, partly due to their impact on curl and are common unit operations in recycling processes. Pilot plant trials were carried out to assess the effect of kneading and dispersion on the ease of removal of inks and stickies.
Tissue systems have seen the widespread use of high-speed washers that remove ash, ink and fines to increase brightness, strength, paper retention and sheet softness. 5%. The main disadvantage is the low yield of these systems (as low as 60%), depending on the feed furnish being used. The role of washing has been investigated in mixed office waste (MOW) systems. Washing has been a controversial step in MOW systems for fine paper and market pulp systems. Several systems have high-speed washers, such as those made by Black Clawson and Voith Sulzer, whereas other systems rely on more conventional washers, such as the vacuum disc or drum.
Advances in Recycling and Deinking by Pira International Ltd