Peter W. Hawkes's Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 111 PDF

By Peter W. Hawkes

ISBN-10: 012014753X

ISBN-13: 9780120147533

Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics merges long-running serials--Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy . The sequence good points prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, picture technological know-how and electronic photo processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing tools utilized in these types of domain names.

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Extra resources for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 111

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A possible application could be in the process for integrated or film circuits, where photomasks are used for fabrication steps. Typically, these photomasks possess a repeated or periodic pattern. Before being used the masks must be carefully inspected for any possible defects, which, if not detected, would result in the manufacture of faulty circuits. In this case, it may be possible to apply the 2-D FNT method to readily show the existence of a mask defect. The inspection process begins by taking a digitized image (of dimension M ð N) of the photomask followed by the computation of its 2-D FNT.

In extreme cases, such as a periodic image of 128 ð 128 D 16, 384 pixels with period Tr ð Tc D 2 ð 2, the computation of 16,384 pixels is reduced to only 4 pixels. A slight imperfection in the period of the image data will destroy the highly regular pattern that arises due to the periodicity, and hence the presence of defects can be easily detected from the dramatic change in the 2-D FNT produced by even a one pixel error. B. Applications The 2-D FNTs can be used to detect defects, especially small defects, in periodic structures.

24 S. BOUSSAKTA AND A. G. J. HOLT B. Number Domain Analysis in Two Dimensions with Possible Applications NTTs have been mainly applied to the calculation of convolutions (filtering) and correlations. Until recently no other applications were thought to exist, because of the residue number system, where the same quantities are congruent rather than equal. Hence the concept of magnitude, as in normal fields, does not hold. NTTs are calculated by retaining the residues only, which has led to difficulty in trying to relate the information content in the number domain generated by NTTs to the time representation of signals and images, such as that of the Fourier transform correspondence between frequency and time domain.

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Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 111 by Peter W. Hawkes

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