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By Shayne Cox Gad; Christopher P Chengelis

ISBN-10: 0122722507

ISBN-13: 9780122722509

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Liebert, New York. , and Bagley, D. (1988). Surfactant-induced cutaneous primary irritancy: An in vitro model-assay system development. In Progress in in Vitro Toxicology (A. M. ), pp. 39-43. Liebert, New York. Department of Transportation Code of Federal Regulations (1992). Title 49, 173:137. Derelanko, M. , Gad, S. , Gavigan, F. , and Dunn, B. J. (1985). Acute dermal toxicity of dilute hydrofluoric acid. Ocular Dermal Toxicol. 4(2), 74-85. Draize, J. , and Calvery, H. O. (1944). Method for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes.

3, pp. 56-536. Liebert, New York. Gad, S. , and Chengelis, C. P. (1988). Acute Toxicity: Principles and Methods. Telfor Press, Caldwell, NJ. Gad, S. , Dunn, B. , Dobbs, D. , and Walsh, R. D. (1986a). Development and validation of an alternative dermal sensitization test: The mouse ear swelling test (MEST). Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol. 84, 93-114. 3 Tests for Dermal Irritation and Corrosion 55 Gad, S. , Walsh, R. , and Dunn, B. J. (1986b). Correlation of ocular and dermal irritancy of industrial chemicals.

This particular study was performed because a manufacturer considered producing a household cleaner with between 2 and 20% hydroflouric acid in it, claiming it would be safe because of a lack of evidence to the contrary in the literature. It is equally important to evaluate and consider the persistence or reversibility of observed irritation. Obviously, the degree of concern is considerably greater for a material whose effect does not fade quickly. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES AND INNOVATIONS In vivo alternative approaches to evaluating dermal toxicity are limited to one other dose site and two other species of small animals.

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Acute toxicology testing by Shayne Cox Gad; Christopher P Chengelis

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